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Unveiling Your Rights: Exploring Legal Options to Sue for Sexual Harassment

Posted on: October 31, 2023

PN Editor
October 31, 2023

Unveiling Your Rights: Exploring Legal Options to Sue for Sexual Harassment

1. The Legal Definition of Sexual Harassment

In Houston, Texas, sexual harassment is defined as any unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment or results in an adverse employment decision. This can include actions such as unwanted touching, sexually explicit comments or jokes, displaying explicit material, and making threats or promises based on sexual favors.

It’s important to note that sexual harassment can occur between individuals of any gender and does not have to be limited to the workplace. It can also occur in educational institutions and public spaces.

Types of Sexual Harassment:

  • Quid Pro Quo: This type of sexual harassment occurs when a person in a position of power demands sexual favors in exchange for job benefits or threatens negative consequences if the advances are rejected.
  • Hostile Work Environment: This type of sexual harassment refers to an atmosphere where pervasive unwelcome sexual conduct interferes with an individual’s ability to perform their job effectively.


An example of quid pro quo sexual harassment would be if a supervisor tells an employee that they will receive a promotion if they engage in a sexual relationship with them. On the other hand, an example of hostile work environment sexual harassment would be if multiple coworkers consistently make inappropriate comments about someone’s appearance or engage in unwelcome touching.

2. The Impact of Sexual Harassment on Workplace Victims

The impact of sexual harassment on workplace victims can be severe and long-lasting. Victims often experience emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and loss of self-esteem. They may also suffer from physical symptoms such as headaches, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal issues.

Sexual harassment can have a detrimental effect on a victim’s professional life as well. It can lead to decreased job satisfaction, reduced productivity, and hindered career advancement opportunities. Victims may also choose to leave their jobs or be forced out due to the hostile work environment.

Psychological Effects of Sexual Harassment:

  • Anxiety and Depression: Victims may experience heightened levels of anxiety and depression as a result of the trauma they have endured.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Some individuals who have experienced sexual harassment may develop PTSD, which can cause flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive thoughts related to the traumatic event.


An example of the impact of sexual harassment on workplace victims could be an employee who was once confident and motivated becoming withdrawn and experiencing panic attacks after being subjected to persistent sexual advances from a coworker.

3. Steps to Take if You Believe You Have Experienced Sexual Harassment

Reporting the Incident

If you believe you have experienced sexual harassment, it is important to take immediate action. The first step is to report the incident to your employer or supervisor. This can be done verbally or in writing, depending on your comfort level and company policies. Be sure to provide specific details about the incident, including dates, times, locations, and any witnesses present.

Documenting the Incident

After reporting the incident, it is crucial to document everything related to the sexual harassment. Keep a record of any conversations or interactions that occur after reporting, as well as any additional incidents that may happen. This documentation will serve as evidence later on if necessary.

  • Contact Human Resources: If your employer has a human resources department, reach out to them and provide them with all relevant information regarding the incident.
  • Seek Legal Advice: It may be beneficial to consult with an attorney who specializes in employment law and sexual harassment cases. They can guide you through the process and help protect your rights.
  • File a Complaint with Government Agencies: Depending on your jurisdiction, there may be government agencies that handle complaints of sexual harassment. Research which agency is appropriate for your situation and file a complaint if necessary.

4. Laws That Protect Individuals from Sexual Harassment

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

One of the key laws protecting individuals from sexual harassment in the United States is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This federal law prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on sex, which includes sexual harassment. It applies to employers with 15 or more employees.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is the federal agency responsible for enforcing Title VII and other anti-discrimination laws. They investigate complaints of sexual harassment and can take legal action against employers who violate these laws. The EEOC also provides guidance and resources to individuals who have experienced sexual harassment.

  • State Laws: In addition to federal laws, many states have their own laws that provide additional protections against sexual harassment. These laws may cover smaller employers or offer more extensive remedies for victims.
  • Local Ordinances: Some cities or municipalities have enacted local ordinances that specifically address sexual harassment in the workplace. These ordinances may provide additional protections or resources for victims.

5. Examples of Behaviors That Could Be Considered Sexual Harassment

Unwanted Sexual Advances

One example of behavior that could be considered sexual harassment is unwanted sexual advances. This includes any unwelcome physical contact, such as touching, hugging, or kissing without consent.

Hostile Work Environment

Another example is creating a hostile work environment through sexually explicit jokes, comments, or images. This behavior can make the workplace uncomfortable and intimidating for the victim.

  • Quid Pro Quo Harassment: This occurs when employment benefits are conditioned on submitting to unwelcome sexual advances or demands.
  • Retaliation: If an employer takes adverse actions against an employee who reports or opposes sexual harassment, it can be considered retaliation.
  • Cyber Harassment: With the rise of technology, online forms of sexual harassment have become prevalent. This includes sending explicit messages or images electronically.

These examples are not exhaustive but provide a glimpse into the various behaviors that could constitute sexual harassment in the workplace.

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6. Evidence Required to Support a Claim of Sexual Harassment

Types of Evidence

In order to support a claim of sexual harassment, it is important for the victim to gather and present various types of evidence. This can include any written documentation such as emails, text messages, or notes that provide proof of the harassment. Additionally, witnesses who have observed the harassment or can testify to the victim’s credibility can be crucial in supporting the claim. Physical evidence such as photographs or videos may also be helpful if they capture instances of inappropriate behavior.

Corroborating Evidence

It is important for victims to gather corroborating evidence that supports their claims. This can include any records or documents that show a pattern of behavior from the harasser, such as previous complaints or disciplinary actions taken against them. It is also beneficial to document any changes in behavior or performance at work that may have resulted from the harassment.

7. Time Limit for Filing a Lawsuit for Sexual Harassment

The time limit for filing a lawsuit for sexual harassment varies depending on the jurisdiction and applicable laws. In general, there are statutes of limitations that determine how long an individual has to file a lawsuit after experiencing sexual harassment. These statutes are in place to ensure timely resolution and prevent stale claims.

It is important for victims of sexual harassment to be aware of these time limits and take prompt action if they wish to pursue legal recourse. Failing to file within the specified time frame may result in the dismissal of their case. Consulting with an attorney who specializes in employment law can help victims understand their rights and navigate the legal process within the given timeframe.

8. Consequences for Employers Who Fail to Address or Prevent Sexual Harassment

Employers have a legal obligation to address and prevent sexual harassment in the workplace. Failure to do so can result in severe consequences for the employer. These consequences can include legal liability, financial penalties, damage to reputation, and negative impact on employee morale.

Legal Consequences

If an employer fails to address or prevent sexual harassment, they may be held legally liable for their actions or lack thereof. This can lead to lawsuits filed by victims seeking compensation for damages such as emotional distress, lost wages, and medical expenses. Additionally, regulatory bodies may impose fines or sanctions on the employer for their failure to maintain a safe working environment.

Reputation and Employee Morale

A failure to address or prevent sexual harassment can have a detrimental effect on an employer’s reputation. News of such incidents can spread quickly through social media and news outlets, tarnishing the company’s image and potentially leading to loss of customers or clients. Moreover, when employers fail to take action against harassers, it sends a message that they do not prioritize the safety and well-being of their employees. This can result in decreased employee morale, increased turnover rates, and difficulty attracting top talent.

9. Suing Both an Individual and Their Employer for Sexual Harassment

In cases of sexual harassment, it is possible for victims to sue both the individual responsible for the harassment as well as their employer. This allows victims to hold both parties accountable for their actions or negligence.

Vicarious Liability

One reason why victims may choose to sue both the individual harasser and their employer is due to vicarious liability. In many jurisdictions, employers can be held legally responsible for the actions of their employees if those actions occurred within the scope of employment. This means that even if the employer was not directly involved in the harassment, they can still be held liable for the actions of their employee.

Individual Liability

Suing the individual harasser separately from their employer allows victims to seek compensation directly from the person who caused them harm. This can be important if the harasser has personal assets or insurance coverage that can be used to satisfy any damages awarded to the victim. It also ensures that the individual is held personally accountable for their actions, which may have a deterrent effect on future misconduct.

In conclusion, the possibility of suing for sexual harassment exists, but it is important to consult with legal professionals to assess the specific circumstances and determine the best course of action.

What is not considered harassment?

What does not constitute workplace harassment? Workplace harassment does not include legitimate and reasonable management actions such as transferring, demoting, or disciplining an employee, as long as these actions are carried out in a reasonable manner.

What are the 9 grounds of harassment?

This is a policy that recognizes, appreciates, and includes diversity in all aspects related to the nine protected categories in equality legislation, including gender, marital status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race, and membership in the Traveller community.

How does HR handle harassment?

It is important for employers to make it clear to their employees that any form of harassing behavior will not be accepted. They can achieve this by implementing a reliable system for employees to file complaints or grievances, offering training on preventing harassment to both managers and employees, and promptly and appropriately addressing any employee complaints.

What is the most common form of harassment?

Sexual harassment is the prevalent form of workplace harassment and is considered unlawful and should be treated with utmost seriousness. Instances of sexual harassment include sharing explicit photos or posters, engaging in inappropriate physical contact or gestures, making sexual comments, and invading someone’s personal space in a sexual manner, among others.

Is harassment always physical?

Sexual harassment refers to any unwelcome verbal, nonverbal, or physical behavior of a sexual nature that aims to violate a person’s dignity, especially when it creates a threatening, hostile, demeaning, humiliating, or offensive environment.

What are the 5 D’s to stop harassment?

Hollaback’s “5 D’s” are a set of strategies that bystanders can employ to help individuals who are experiencing harassment. These strategies aim to show that harassment is unacceptable and to empower others to create safer environments in our communities and workplaces.

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